The dual mandate is an expression of the fundamental principles of European imperialism in tropical Africa as theorized by Sir Frederick Lugard (–). L95 Dual mandate In British tropical Africa, 3 The original of this book is in the Cornell Sir F. D. LUGARD g.c.m.g., c.b., d.s.o. HON. Donor challenge: Your generous donation will be matched 2-to-1 right now. Your $5 becomes $15! Dear Internet Archive Supporter,. I ask only.

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Such arrangement in which imperial orders were disguised as those of the chiefs ensured quick compliance by the people. He was to create a British-officered African regiment that he was to employ in a second attempt to fend off the French, who then were competing with the British right across Africa from the Niger to the Nile.

Although, the Yoruba possessed a centralized political system, it was less autocratic than the Sokoto Caliphate. A Case Study of Uganda, c. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Initial difficulty of European administration. Stanley during the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition. On a red disk he placed a green six-pointed star, which he referred to as the Seal of Solomon.

Within 18 months—not without a brief use of his one operative Maxim gun—Lugard imposed peace, carried out an immense march to the west, and won a treaty of allegiance from the kabaka. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Print this article Print all entries for this topic Cite this article. The attempts of rulers to forcibly collect imposed colonial taxes bred discontentment in some parts of Yorubaland.


In Northern Nigeria, therefore, Lugard found the necessary centralized political structure and preexiting taxation and court systems critical for indirect rule to work. In Igboland, indirect rule without legitimately constituted authority was a total failure.

Head of Zeus Ltd. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Lugard’s thesis ascribed to imperial Europe a fundamental right to Africa’s “wasted bounties of nature,” and also the responsibility of holding them in trust and developing them for daul benefit of humankind. His name is especially associated with Nigeriawhere he served as high commissioner —06 and governor and governor-general — Throughout dkal tenure, he sought strenuously to secure the amelioration of the condition of the native people, among other means by the exclusion, wherever possible, of alcoholic liquors, and by the suppression of slave raiding and slavery.

The administration of the caliphate came under the central authority of the caliph and a number of emirs who headed sub-units of the state, the emirates. The created rulers, the so-called “warrant chiefs,” lacked legitimacy and their attempts dyal exercise political authority in Igboland gave rise to deep resentment against them.

Nor did he mandste it easy to extend the principles of indirect rule to the loosely organized societies of the Igbo Ibo and other southeastern tribes. Therefore, effective British officers should retain their posts without undue interruptions. He had submitted a proposal for the Convention to the British government. Lugard’s first mission was to determine the feasibility of a route from Mombasa to Machakos that would bypass the Taru Desert.

Dual Mandate, Africa |

Some of his justifications included spreading Christianity and ending ‘barbarism’ such as human sacrifice. Lugard did not attempt a complete fusion of their systems and retained a degree of dualism between south and north.


In AugustLugard organised the West African Frontier Force and commanded it until the end of Decemberwhen the disputes with France were settled. Keep Exploring Britannica Vladimir Putin.

This system, cooperative in spirit and economical in staff and expense, he xual on in his detailed political memorandums. Most of this vast region ofsquare milessquare km was still unoccupied and even unexplored by Europeans.

The dual mandate in British tropical Africa

In practice, it proved workable largely because the existing hierarchical political order in Northern Nigeria fit perfectly with the demands of the system. His central government comprised….

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An officer with a promising career ahead of him in British India, he experienced a catastrophic love affair with a married woman. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. There he was tracked down by a runner sent by the colonial secretary, Joseph Chamberlainto offer him his first official government appointment.

The Administration of Nigeria to Finally, Lugard reasoned that colonisation had become a fad and that, in order to remain a super power, Britain would need to hold colonies to avoid appearing weak. Archived from the original PDF on 7 December His book is a masterpiece of literature and policymaking, though contemporary readers will find his defense of British colonialism in Africa racist and paternalistic.

Lugard, assisted by his indefatigable wife, Flora Shaw, concocted a legend which warped understanding of him, Nigeria and colonialism for decades.

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